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HUM 293 / REL 293 - Beginning Latin


Verbs are the action words of a sentence or clause.

Latin verbs exhibit :

Two Voices - Active and Passive
The Active voice is used when the Subject of the sentence performs the action
eg : The dog chased the cat.
The Passive voice is used when the Subject of the sentence receives or is affected by the action
eg : The cat was chased by the dog.
Six Tenses - Present, Imperfect, Future, Perfect, Past Perfect (or Pluperfect) and Future Perfect
The Present Tense is used for actions going on at the present, or for general statements
eg : The dog is chasing the cat. It is good to be truthful. The dog barks all the time.
The Imperfect is used for continued or repeated action in the past.
eg : The dog was chasing the cat. The dog used to chase the cat.
The Future is used for actions in the future
eg : The dog will get supper this evening.
The Perfect is used for an action which has been completed or finished. It generally corresponds to the English simple Past tense.
eg. The dog has chased the cat. The dog did chase the cat. The dog chased the cat.
The Pluperfect or Past Perfect is used for an action which had already been completed before some other cation in the past. It can often be translated into English as "had" done something.
eg. The cat had scratched the dog before he chased her.
The Future Perfect is rarely used. It indicates an action that will have been completed before another action takes place.
eg. I will have eaten breakfast before my brother gets out of bed.
Two Aspects - Imperfective and Perfective
The Imperfective Aspect includes the Present, Future, and Imperfect tenses - it implies that an action has not been completed
The Perfective Aspect includes the Perfec, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect tenses - it implies that an action has been finished or completed.
Three Moods - Indicative, Imperative, and Subjunctive
The Indicative is used for statements.
eg. The dog chased the cat.
The Imperative is used for giving orders or prohibitions
eg. Don't chase the cat.
Sometimes the Infinitive is not regarded as a Mood, but as one of the non-finite forms
The Subjunctive is used when there is some doubt about the action
eg. If the dog should chase the cat I'll tie him up. Let's play with the dog. Whoever may tease the cat will get scratched.
English speakers are no longer careful to make a distinction between a definite statement and a " doubtful assertion" - we tend to use the indicative when we ought to use the subjunctive.
Two Numbers - Singular and Plural
The Singular is used when one person or thing is the subject
eg. He is a good student
the Plural is used when more than one person or thing is the subject
eg. They are good students.
Three Persons - First, Second, Third
The First Person Singular = I; First Person Plural = We
The Second Person Singular = Thou or you; Second Person Plural = You
The Third Person Singular = He, she, or it; Third Person Plural = They
Four non-finite forms - the Infinitive, Participles, the Gerund, the Supine
The Infinitive has the form "to do" something
eg. The dog likes to chase the cat. It is good to exercise regularly. I am going to graduate soon.
Participles have the form "doing" something, "having done" something, "going to do" something
eg. The dog, chasing the cat, tore up the yard. The cat, having gone out, wants to come in again. The students, going to study, went to the library.
The Future Passive Participle is also called the Gerundive. It is a future passive participle which is used as a verbal adjective. It has the form "about to be", "fit to be", "deserving to be"
The Gerund is a verbal noun, with the form "of/to/for/by doing" something
eg. The dog has a fondness for running in circles. We learn by reading books.
The Supine only occurs in the accusative and ablative cases. The accusative form ends in ľum, and is used with a verb of motion in order to show the purpose. The accusative form of a supine can also take an object.
eg. The dog came into the yard to bury his bone.

All the various forms of a verb can be worked out if one knows just four "Principal parts" of the verb.
Dictionaries and verb tables usually list the Principal Parts in the order :
1. First Person Singular Present Active, eg. amo
2. Present Infinitive Active, eg. amare
3. First Person Singular Perfect Active, eg. amavi
4. The Supine, in either the masculine or neuter form, eg. amatus or amatum
Sometimes the Infinitve will be listed last.
For regular verbs, the Principal Parts may be abbreviated, eg.
amo -are -avi -atum

Principal Parts of common Verbs

abeo, abire, abdii, abitum - to go away
absum, abesse, afui - to be away
abstineo, abstinere, abstinui, abstentum - to withhold, abstain
accideo, accidere, accidi - to happen
accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptum - to receive
adhibeo, adhibere, adhibui, adhibitum - to bring, put, use
adolesco, adolescere, adolevi - to grow up, mature
adsum, adesse, adfui - to be present
aggredior, aggredi, aggressus sum - to attack
ago, agere, egi, actum - to do, drive
amo, amare, amavi, amatum - to love, be fond of
aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum - to open, uncover
audeo, audere, ausus sum - to dare
audio, audire, audivi, auditum - to hear, listen (to)
aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatum - to take away, mislead
augeo, augere, auxi, auctum - to increase, enlarge
bibo, bibere, bibi - to drink
cado, cadere, cecidi, casurus - to fall
caedo, caedere, cecidi, caesum - to kill, slay, cut
capio, capere, cepi, captum - to take, seize
careo, carere, carui, cariturus - to lack
carpo, carpere, carpsi, carptum - to pluck, select
caveo, cavere, cavi, cautum - to beware
cedo, cedere, cessi, cessurus - to go, give way
censeo, censere, censui, censum - to assess, take a census
cieo, ciere, civi, citum - to arouse, stir
clamo, clamare, clamavi, clamatum - to shout
coepi, coepisse - to begin
comedo, comesse, comedi, comestum - to devour, waste
conor, conari, conatus sum - to try
contendo, contendere, contendi, contentum - to strive, hurry
credo, credere, credidi, creditum - to believe
cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitum - to desire, long for
curro, currere, cucurri, cursum - to run, race
debeo, debere, debui, debitum - to owe, have to
deleo, delere, delevi, deletus - to destroy, efface
dico, dicere, dixi, dictum - to tell, say
do, dare, dedi, datum - to give
doceo, docere, docui, doctum - to teach, instruct
duco, ducere, duxi, ductum - to lead
edo, esse, edi, esum - to eat, waste
emo, emere, emi, emptum - to buy, purchase
eo, ire, ivi/ii, itum - to go
exeo, exire, exit, exitum - to go out
facio, facere, feci, factum - to do, make
faveo, favere, favi, fautum - to favour
fero, ferre, tuli, latum - to bring, bear, endure
fio, fieri, factus sum - to become, happen
flecto, flectere, flexi, flexum - to bend, twist
floresco, florescere, florui - to begin to flourish, blossom
for, fari, fatus sum - to speak, utter
foveo, fovere, fovi, fotus - to caress, cherish
frico, fricare, fricui, frictum - to rub
fruor, frui, fructus sum - to enjoy (company of)
fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum - to pour, utter
gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus sum - to be glad
gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wear, bear
gigno, gignere, genui, genitum - to beget, cause, produce
habeo, habere, habui, habitum - to have, keep
haereo, haerere, haesi, haeriturus - to adhere, stick
iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie down
iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum - to throw, lay
ico, icere, ici, ictum - to strike, smite
irascor, irasci, iratus sum - to be angry
iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum - to order, bid
iudico, iudicare, iudicavi, iudicatum - to judge
iuro, iurare, iuravi, iuratum - to swear
iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutum - to help, assist
lavo, lavare, lavi, lautum - to wash, bathe
lego, legere, legi, lectum - to collect, read
licet, licere, licuit - it is allowed
loquor, loqui, locatus sum - to speak
malo, malle, malui - to prefer
memini, meminisse - to remember
meto, metere, messui, messum - to reap, harvest
minuo, minuere, minui, minutum - to lessen, diminish
misceo, miscere, miscui, mixtum - to mix
mitto, mittere, misi, missum - to send
moneo, monere, monui, monitum - to advise, warn
mordeo, mordere, momordi, morsum - to bite, nip
morior, mori, mortuus sum (deponent) - to die, decay
moveo, movere, movi, motum - to move
munio, munire, munivi, munitum - to fortify, build
nanciscor, nancisci, na(n)ctus sum - to obtain
narro, narrare, narravi, narratum - to tell
nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born
noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitum - to harm
nolo, nolle, nolui - to be unwilling, refuse
nosco, noscere, novi, notum - to get to know, learn
obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum - to forget
obtineo, obtinere, obtinui, obtentum - to hold, obtain
odi, odisse - to hate
pareo, parere, parui - to obey
pasco, pascere, pavi, pastum - to feed, nourish
patior, pati, passus sum (deponent) - to suffer, undergo, allow
pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsum - to beat, drive away
peto, petere, petivi, petitum - to seek, ask
pono, ponere, posui, positum - to place, put
porto, portare, portavi, portatum - to carry, bring
possum, posse, potui - to be able, can
potior, potiri, potitus sum - to gain possession of
quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - to ask, seek
rapio, rapere, rapui, raptum - to plunder, seize
rego, regere, rexi, rectum - to rule
ruo, ruere, rui, rutum - to rush, collapse
saepio, saepire, saepsi, saeptum - to surround, enclose
sancio, sancire, sanxi, sanctum - to confirm, ratify
scio, scire, scivi, scitum - to know
scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptum - to write
seco, secare, secui, sectum - to cut, divide
sedeo, sedere, sedi, sessum - to sit
sentio, sentire, sensi, sensum - to feel, perceive
sequor, sequi, secutus sum - to follow
sero, serere, sevi, satum - to sow, plant
spondeo, spondere, spopondi, sponsum - to vow, promise
sterno, sternere, stravi, stratum - to spread, stretch out
sto, stare, steti, statum - to stand
strideo, stridere, stridi - to hiss, creak
struo, struere, struxi, structum - to build, erect
suadeo, suadere, suadui, suasum - to advise, urge
sum, esse, fui, futurus - to be, exist
surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectum - to get up, rise
taceo, tacere, tacui, tacitum - to be silent
tango, tangere, tetigi, tactum - to touch, hit
teneo, tenere, tenui, tentum - to hold, keep
tero, terere, trivi, tritum - to rub, wear out
terreo, terrere, terrui, territum - to frighten, deter
texo, texere, texui, textum - to weave, plait
timeo, timere, timui - to fear
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatum - to raise, remove
traho, trahere, traxi, tractum - to drag, draw
utor, uti, usus sum - to use
valeo, valere, valui, valitum - to be strong
venio, venire, veni, ventum - to come, arrive
verto, vertere, verti, versum - to turn, alter
veto, vetare, vetui, vetitum - to forbid, prohibit
video, videre, vidi, visum - to see, notice
vinco, vincere, vici, victum - to conquer, master
viso, visere, visi, visum - to visit, to look at
volo, velle, volui - to wish, want

Copyright © 1999 Shirley J. Rollinson, all Rights Reserved

Dr. Rollinson

Department of Religion
ENMU Station 19
Portales, NM 88130

Last Updated: April 18, 2009

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