History Pages - Part 8

Rome, Revolts, and the Destruction of Jerusalem - 63 BC - AD 200


100-44 BC
Life of Julius Caesar of Rome
96 BC
Tigrames, King of Armenia
90 BC
Civil War in Rome, Marius vs. Sulla. Sulla won
89-88 BC
King Mithriades VI Eupator of Pontos massacred 80,000 Romans in Asia minor and freed most of southern Greece from Roman rule
87-86 BC
Roman general Sulla defeated Mithridates, burnt Athens, stripped Greek shrines and demanded reparations for the rebellion
82 BC
Sulla defeated Marius the Younger, and was made "Dictator for life" (resigned in 79 BC, and died in 78 BC)
ca 79 BC
Lucullus imported the first cherry trees from Asia Minor to Rome
76-66 BC
Alexandra Salome, widow of Alexander Jannai, succeeded him as ruler and appointed her son Hyrcanus II as high priest. She reinstated the Pharisees' ordinances, and their control of Temple practices and calendar
72 BC
Germanic tribes invaded Gaul
71 BC
Revolt of slaves and gladiators in Rome, led by Spartacus, put down by Pompey and Crassus
70-19 BC
Virgil, Roman poet
66 BC
Death of Alexandra Salome. Her sons were Aristobulus II and Hyrcanus II. They commenced a struggle for power, which involved Antipater (also called Antipas, the militray commander of Idumea) and the Romans. That was a mistake - Rome took all
66-63 BC
Aristobulus II, younger son of Salome, wrested kingship and high priesthood from his brother Hyrcanus II: allied himself with the Sadducees
65-8 BC
Horace, Roman poet
63 BC
Roman occupation of Palestine
Pompey invaded Judea, made Palestine part of the Roman province of Syria; Temple Mount besieged and captured
Pompey decided in favor of Hyrcanus II, but deposed him from kingship and appointed him High Priest. End of the Hasmonean dynasty
Aristobulus II and others were marched as captives in triumph through Rome, then became part of Rome's growing Jewish community
63-40 BC
Hyrcanus II, High Priest at Jerusalem
63 BC - AD 14
Gaius Octavius (became the Emperor Augustus)
59 BC
First Triumvirate (rule by three men) of Rome (Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey)
58 BC
Caesar conquered Gaul
55 BC
Caesar led the first Roman invasion of Britain
51 BC
Caesar wrote "De bello Gallico" ("About the Gallic War")
51-31 BC
Cleopatra VII, last ruler of the Ptolemeic dynasty of Egypt
49 BC
Caesar won battle against Pompey near Thermopylai in Greece
Caesar brought his army across the Rubicon river, into Rome. "Crossing the Rubicon" with an army was equivalent to declaring war on Rome. Caesar's statement "Alea jacta est" - the die is thrown
49-47 BC
Civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey
48 BC
Birth of a son, Caesarion, to Julius Caesar of Rome and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. They set up house together in Rome, although Caesar already had a Roman wife
47 BC
As a reward for support of his Egypt campaign, Caesar appointed Hyrcanus as Ethnarch of Jews, and Antipater as procurator of Judea
Cleopatra of Egypt had Pompey murdered. She later tried to persuade Mark Antony to have Herod assassinated, so that she could take Judea, but Mark Antony refused
Library of Alexandria burned (by accident ?)
Herod made governor of Galilee
46 BC
Julius Caesar was appointed Dictator of Rome
The Julian Calendar - leap years introduced
45 BC
Caesar adopted his nephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian) as his heir
44 BC
Julius Caesar assassinated in Rome, March 15 ("the Ides of March"). The assassins were led by Cassius and Brutus. Caesar's last words were "και συ τεκνον" - "kai su, technon?" (You too, child?) to Brutus. (These are the words reported by eye-witnesses and historians of the time. Shakespeare may have been the first to use the Latin translation which has became famous "et tu, Brute?")
43 BC
Founding of the Roman town of Lundinium (London) on the site of earlier settlements at fords across the River Thames
43 BC - AD 18
Ovid, Roman poet
42 BC
Caesar's adopted son Octavian joined with Mark Antony to defeat Cassius and Brutus in Macedonia. Cassius and Brutus committed suicide. Mark Antony took control of the eastern regions, and made Athens his capital
40 BC
Herod (the Great), son of Antipater, and friend of Mark Antony, went to Rome to get himself appointed as a vassal king under Roman authority, called "King of the Jews" although he himself was of Edomite descent
40-37 BC
Antigonus II (son of Aristobulus II) power struggle with Herod the Great; got help from Parthians and ruled until he was executed by the Romans on behalf of Herod
37 BC
Herod the Great captured Jerusalem, had Antigonus II executed
40-4 BC
Rule of Herod I (Herod the Great). Married Mariamne I (a Hasmonean princess, granddaughter of both Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II), and styled himself "King of the Jews". Eventually killed Mariamne and the sons he had by her. Romans joked "I would rather be Herod's pig than his son" (Herod passed himself off as a Jew, and would not eat pork)
38 BC
Mark Antony returned to Egypt (and Cleopatra)
36-30 BC
Civil war in Rome between Octavian (Augustus) and Mark Antony
32 BC
Mark Antony and Cleopatra invaded Italy to fight Octavian
31 BC
Naval Battle of Actium (in Greece) : Mark Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian and committed suicide.
This was the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Egypt was made a Roman province
30 BC - AD 14
Octavian took the name Augustus and founded the Roman Empire
Construction of the system of straight Roman roads to facilitate movement of the army throughout the Empire began
20 BC
Herod the Great started to rebuild and extend the Temple in Jerusalem. The project continued until AD 62
13 BC - 41 AD
Philo of Alexandria
AD 6
Rome took direct control of Palestine by appointing Roman Prefects. Herod Archelaus was deposed by Emperor Augustus. Samaria, Judea and Idumea were annexed as the province of Judea with the capital at Caesarea
Quirinius: Legate (Governor) of Syria, 1st Roman tax census of Judea
AD 14-37
Tiberius Emperor of Rome (born 42 BC)
AD 26-36
Pontius Pilate, Roman Prefect of Judea (Samaria, Judea, and Idumea)
ca. AD 36-37
Paul of Tarsus agreed to the martyrdom of Stephen, persecution of the Church started in Jerusalem
AD 37
Paul of Tarsus became a Christian (Acts 9)
AD 37-41
Calligula, Emperor of Rome (assassinated)
AD 37-100
Life of Josephus, who started out as a Jewish general against the Romans, switched his allegiance, went to Rome and wrote several books, including a History of the Jews
ca. AD 40
Rabbi Gamaliel I in Jerusalem
Paul went to Jerusalem to consult with Peter (Galatians 1:18-20)
AD 41-54
Claudius, Emperor of Rome (poisoned by his wife Agrippina, mother of Nero)
AD 44
James, brother of John, executed by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:1-3)
AD 46-120
Plutarch, Greek author, of Chaeronea near Thebes, visited Asia, Egypt and Italy and had friends in Rome; wrote many books and biographies, including pairs of "parallel lives" (a Greek compared to a Roman)
AD 45-57
Paul's Missionary Journeys
AD 47-48
Paul and Barnabas on Cyprus (Acts 13:4-12(
AD 48-49
Council of Jerusalem, 1st Christian Council, decisions regarding circumcision and dietary law were agreed to by apostles and presbyters, written in a letter addressed to "the brothers of Gentile origin in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia" - (Acts 15)
ca. AD 48-57
Paul wrote Galatians
AD 49-50
Paul in Corinth (Acts 18)
ca. AD 50
Peshitta translation began : the Hebrew OT into Syrian Aramaic. The NT was added ca. AD 400
AD 51-52
Paul wrote I & II Thessalonians
AD 53-62
Paul wrote Philippians
AD 54-68
Nero, Emperor of Rome
AD 56
Paul wrote I Corinthians
AD 57
Paul wrote Romans, II Corinthians
Paul's last visit to Jerusalem (Acts 21)
AD 58
Paul arrested, imprisoned in Caesarea (Acts 25:4)
AD 59
Nero had his mother Agrippina killed
AD 60
Paul in prison in Rome (Acts 28:16)
Martyrdom of James of Jerusalem -
"Being therefore this kind of person (a heartless Sadducee), Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting ("sanhedrin") of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned."
Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 20.9.1
ca. AD 60-63
Paul wrote Ephesians, Philemon, Colossians, I & II Timothy, Titus
ca. AD 62
Epistle of James written by the leader of the Jerusalem community
Possible date for the martyrdom of Paul in Rome - it may also be that Paul was released, imprisoned again, and killed in AD 67
Nero had his wife Octavia killed so that he could marry Poppaea Sabina
AD 64
Great Fire of Rome, started by Nero and blamed on Christians,
"Therefore to squelch the rumor (that Nero had started the Great Fire of Rome), Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called "Christians," (a group) hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated."
Tacitus, Annals 15.44
AD 65
Nero ordered Seneca and Lucan to commit suicide; they obeyed. If they had not done so, all the members of their families would have been destroyed
AD 65-150
The Didache ("The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles") written - an early book of advice for Church leaders
The "Gospel of Thomas" written, probably based on Q
AD 66-70
First Jewish Revolt (against Rome)
AD 67
Peter and Paul executed in Rome
General Vespasian of Rome conquered the Galilee
Josephus deserted his Jewish troops and went over to the Romans
AD 68
Nero committed suicide
Galba Emperor of Rome
Flavius Josephus wrote "History of the Jewish War"
Christians from Jerusalem fled to Pella in Transjordan
Esssene community at Qumran destroyed by the Romans. The Essenes hid their scrolls in nearby caves - The "Dead Sea Scrolls", which were found in 1949
AD 69
Otho emperor of Rome (1/69-4/69)
Vitellius emperor of Rome (6/69-12/69)
AD 69-79
Vespasian, Emperor of Rome
AD 69
Vespasian allowed Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai to leave Jerusalem and start a center for Jewish studies at Jabne (Yavneh, Jamnia) by the town of Tiberias in the Galilee. This center survived the Roman destruction and became a center for Rabbinic Judaism
AD 69-155
Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna
AD 70
Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans, Destruction of the Second Temple
The Sanhedrin starts to assume the power of legislation for Judaism
The Gospel according tof Mark written in Rome
AD 73
Fall of Masada. Romans began to drive Jews out of Israel, set about destruction of the whole land
AD 75-90
The Gosepl according to St. Luke, and the Acts of the Apostles written
AD 79
Eruption of Vesuvius - Herculaneum and Pompeii buried in volcanic ash and lava
AD 79-81
Titus (eldest son of Vespasian) Emperor of Rome
AD 80-85
The Gospel according to Matthew written, based on Mark and Q, most popular in the early Church
AD 81-96
Domitian (son of Vespasian, younger brother of Titus), Emperor of Rome
Revelation written by John (son of Zebedee) and/or a disciple of his
AD 84
Christians driven out of the synagogues
AD 90-100
Rabbi Gamaliel II
1, 2, & 3 John written
The Gospel according to John written, by John (son of Zebedee) and others, the remaining living eyewitness to Jesus
AD 91-101
Pope Clement I, 4th Pope, (mentioned in Philippians 4:3), wrote "I Clement" to the Church in Corinth in AD 95
AD 94
Josephus wrote the "Antiquities of the Jews" in Latin so that Romans could learn about the Jews
"At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out."
Josephus - Jewish Antiquities 18.3.3
AD 95-150
Writings of the "Apostolic Fathers" (Epistles of Clement, Ignatius, Barnabas, Polycarp; the Shepherd of Hermas, the Didache ("The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" - early book of instructions for Church leaders)
ca. AD 96
Epistle to the Hebrews written, author not named
AD 96-98
Nerva, Emperor of Rome
AD 98-117
Trajan, Emperor of Rome. Roman Empire reached its greatest extent
ca. AD 100
Epistle of Barnabas, Christian exegesis of the Septuagint
2nd Epistle of Clement
Epistle of Jude
Assyria converted to Christianity. Assyrian Church of the East engaged in great missionary activity, reaching China and the Mongolian Empire
ca. 100-125
II Peter, apocryphal Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark)
AD 100-165
Justin Martyr
ca. AD 110
Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians
"Letters of Ignatius", bishop of Antioch who was martyred in Rome
AD 117-138
Hadrian, Emperor of Rome
AD 122-127
Hadrian built his wall across northern Britain. Christian inscriptions have been found on some of the stones of the wall
AD 120-135
Rabbi Akiva, consolidated Rabbinic Judaism, joined the Jewish Revolt, was captured and tortured to death by the Romans
AD 125
Probable date for Papyrus 52 - the oldest extant NT fragment, with parts of John 18:31-33,37-38
The "Shepherd of Hermas", written in Rome
AD 132-135
Second Jewish Revolt : "Bar Kochbah" uprising led by Simon Bar Kochba against Rome : final Jewish revolt, Judea and Jerusalem were erased from maps, all of southern Syria renamed Palestine
AD 135
Hadrian destroyed Jerusalem. The Romans ploughed up the remains of Jerusalem, and founded another city "Aelia Capitolina" on the site; Jews dispersed throughout the Roman Empire
AD 135 - ca.250
Jewish scholars moved from Jamnia to Usha (near Haifa), started to organize and write down the "halakoth" (Jewish traditional and Oral Laws, not the Pentateuch). The project was initiated by Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph, continued by Rabbi Meir, and brought to completion by Rabbi Judah ha Nasi, Judah the Prince. The collection is known as the Mishnah
AD 138-161
Antoninus Pius, Emperor of Rome
AD 144
Marcion rejected the authority of the Old Testament, edited his own version of the Scriptures (without the Old Testament) and was excommunicated; died ca. AD 160
AD 150-200
The "Christian Apologists" - writings against Roman Paganism by: Justin Martyr (AD 165), Athenagoras (ca. AD 180), Aristides (ca. AD 145), Theophilus of Antioch (ca. AD 185), Tatian (AD 170), Quadratus (ca. AD 130), Melito of Sardis (ca. AD 180), Apollinaris of Hierapolis (ca, AD 180), also the Epistle to Diognetus
AD 150-215
Clement of Alexandria
AD 155 & 161
Justin Martyr wrote his "Apologies"
ca. AD 156
Montanus and the growth of Montanism
AD 160
Polycarp of Smyrna martyred at age 86
AD 160-220
AD 161-180
Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome
AD 164-180
Great Plague in the Roman Empire
AD 166-174
Pope Soter, 12th Pope, moved the celebration of Easter from Nisan 14 to the following Sunday
ca. AD 170
Pausanias of Magnesia wrote his "Periegesis", a 10-volume guide to Greece
Ptolemy drew maps of the known world
Christian council to deal with the Montanist sect in Asia Minor
Tatian produced his "Diatessaron" (Harmony) of the Gospels
Symmachus, an Ebionite, wrote an entirely new Greek translation of the Old Testament
AD 178-200
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons (France)
AD 180-192
Commodus, son of Marcus Aureleus, Emperor of Rome, murdered
AD 185-254
Origen of Alexandria
AD 189-196
Pope Victor I, 14th Pope, excommunicated Eastern churches which continued to observe Easter on Nisan 14 ("Quartodeciman")
AD 190
Christian Council to determine the "official" date of Easter
ca. AD 190
Galen recorded the use of plant extracts as medicines
AD 193-211
Septimus Severus, Emperor of Rome
AD 200
Latin Bible translations began in Carthage, and Sahidic Coptic Bible translations began in Alexandria
ca. AD 210
Completion of the Mishnah, codification of Jewish Oral Law

Main Sources : Smithsonian Timelines of Ancient History,
The Timetables of History (Bernard Grun)


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Dr. Rollinson

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Portales, NM 88130

Last Updated: June 28, 2017

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