History Pages - Part 10

Masoretes, Byzantines, the beginnings of Western Europe - AD 400-600


AD 370-425
Rabbi Hillel, formulated the interpretation of the Torah
AD 374
Ambrose became bishop of Milan
AD 376
Barbarian invasions - Emperor Valens gave permission to the Visigoths to cross the Danube and settle within the Empire
AD 378
Death of Valens in battle against invading Goths
AD 380-392
Emperor Theodosius I of the East, reunited the Roman Empire, made Christianity the official state religion and prohibited the practice of pagan rituals including the Olympic Games; but allowed Judaism and the religion of the Samaritans. Theodosius began inviting barbarian cavalry to fight for the Empire against other barbarians
AD 381
Council of Theodosius at Constantinople, The Second Ecumenical Council, affirmed that Jesus had a truly human soul
AD 382
Pope Damasus I called a council, listed the Canonical Books of the Old and New Testaments
AD 382-384
Pope Damasus I asked Jerome to revise and unify Latin Bibles
AD 383
Roman Legions started to evacuate Britain as they were needed to defend Rome from invaders
Britain was cut off from the Roman Empire
AD 384
Jerome presented Pope Damasus I with the new Latin translation of the Gospels
AD 386
Ambrose of Milan introduced the singing of hymns as part of the Church liturgy
Conversion of Augustine
Jerome moved to Bethlehem, lived as a monk in a cave at Bethlehem, learnt Hebrew, translated the whole Bible into Latin
approx. date for the completion of the Jerusalem Talmud (commentary on the Mishnah)
AD 390
Apollinaris of Laodicea, taught the heresy that Jesus had a human body but a divine spirit
ca AD 391
Ammianus Marcellinus, Christian historian, wrote "Res gestae"
AD 392
Death of Theodosius the Great
AD 395
Roman Empire divided again into the Western Empire, centered on Rome, and the Eastern Empire, centered on Byzantium (modern Istanbul in Turkey)
AD 395-641
Byzantine period in Egypt. Egyptian hieroglyphics dropped out of use and their meaning was forgotten
AD 396-398
Alaric the Goth invaded and plundered Greece and the Balkans
AD 397
Ambrose, bishop and governor of Milan, wrote "de Fide"
AD 398
John Chrysostom became bishop of Constantinople
ca. AD 400
The Vulgate, Latin translation of the Bible, by Jerome. The Vulgate Latin text became the standard Western Christian Bible
The Peshitta, Syriac (Aramaic) Bible, produced. The Peshitta became the standard Syrian Christian Bible
ca. AD 400
Age of the Masoretes began
Jews dispersed throughout Europe and Russia, developed settled cultures in Spain (Ashkenazi), and Rhine valley (Yiddish); subject to restrictions, persecutions, and pogroms by Christians
Beginning of alchemy - the search for the "Philosophers' Stone" - reputed to turn everything into gold, and the "Elixir of Life" - reputed to give eternal youth
AD 400
Babylonian Talmud & Jerusalem Talmud - commentaries on the Mishnah
AD 400-461
Leo I (the Great) of Rome
AD 400-600
Egyptian, Syrian and Armenian Christians translated the Bible and the Liturgy into their own languages and rejected traditional Eastern Orthodoxy (They became the Melchite Churches)
AD 401-403
Visigoths (Western Goths) invaded Italy
AD 401-417
Pope Innocent I
AD 403
Letters of the Church Fathers Epiphanius of Constantia and John Chrysostom
AD 410
Alaric and the Visigoths sacked Rome
AD 410-436
Roman Legions left Britain to defend Rome. The Dark Age of Britain began
AD 411
Augustine wrote "The City of God" after the Sack of Rome
AD 412-444
Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, expelled the Jews and incited a mob to kill the female philosopher Hypatia
AD 416
The Council of Carthage condemned Pelagianism;
Visigoths took Spain
AD 418
Franks took Gaul
AD 422-432
Pope Celestine I, sent Palladius to Ireland as its first bishop
AD 425
Constantinople University founded;
Barbarians started to invade and settle in former Roman provinces :
  • Visigoths in what is now Spain and Portugal
  • Franks in Gaul
  • Vandals in Spain
  • Huns in Pannonia
  • Ostrogoths (Eastern Goths) in Dalmatia
  • Suevi in what is now Portugal
  • Alemanni in Alsace, AD 443
AD 428
Nestorius became Patriarch of Constantinople
AD 428-477
Gaiseric, king of the Vandals, invaded northern Africa, and founded a kingdom there
AD 429
Saxons, Angles, and Jutes started to invade southern Britain, driving the Picts and Scots northwards
ca. AD 430-460
St. Patrick in Ireland
AD 431
The Council of Ephesus - condemned Nestorius, and used the title "Mother of God" for the Virgin Mary
Syrian Church split into Eastern (Nestorian, those who disagreed with the Council of Ephesus) and Western (Jacobite) parts
AD 433-453
Attila the Hun, the "Scourge of God"
AD 440-461
Pope Leo I (45th Pope)
AD 442-450
Attila and the Huns of central Asia attacked Greek and Roman cities
AD 451
The Ecumenical Council of the Church, at Chalcedon - affirmed that Christ is "One Person in two Natures". The Churches in Egypt and Syria broke off from the Greek and Roman Churches;
Death of Nestorius of Constantinople. His followers, the Nestorians, said that Mary was not the "Mother of God"
AD 454
Eutyches of Constantinople, founder of the Monophysite sect who said that Jesus was divine but not human
AD 455
The Vandals under Gaiseric sacked Rome, Pope Leo I negotiated with them to try to spare the people
AD 457-474
Pope Leo I, 46th Pope, became emperor of remaining (eastern) Roman empire
AD 474-491
Zeno, eastern Roman emperor
AD 476
End of the Western Roman Empire - Odoacer of the Germans killed the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, and made himself King of Italy
AD 476-491
Emperor Zeno (of the East), commissioned the Ostrogoth leader Theodoric to invade Italy and conquer the western Empire
AD 477
Kingdom of Sussex (Southern Saxons) founded in Britain
AD 480-524
Boëthius, Roman philosopher and theologian
AD 480-543
Benedict of Nursia - developed a system for Monasticism in the Western Church, founded the Benedictines
AD 481-511
Clovis became king of the Franks at the age of 15, and founded the Merovingian dynasty
AD 484-519
First Schism between Eastern and Western Churches - the Acacian schism, over the "Henoticon" which denied that Christ was the Son of God. The Pope of Rome, Felix III, excommunicated the Eastern Patriarch of Constantinople, Acacius. Photinus, deacon of Thessalonica, was of the Greek church and held to the Acacian heresy. Photinus persuaded emperor Anastasius I to accept the Acacian heresy
AD 489
Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, invaded and conquered Italy
Zeno destroyed Nestorian school at Edessa, erected Church of St. Simeon
AD 490-583
Cassiodorus, Roman historian and theologian
AD 491
The Armenian Church cut ties with Byzantine and Rome Churches
AD 491-518
Anastasius I, Eastern Roman emperor
AD 492-496
Pope Gelasius I (50th Pope). The term "Vicar of Christ" was introduced as one of the Pope's titles
AD 493
Ostrogoths (Eastern Goths) under Theodoric the Great took over the Western Roman Empire;
Clovis I of the Franks married a Christian princess, Clothilde
AD 495
Kingdom of Wessex (West Saxons) founded in Britain
AD 496
Clovis I of the Franks defeated the Alemanni, and was baptized as a Christian by Remigius (St. Remy), Bishop of Rheims;
Pope Gelasius produced the Gelasian Missal - book of prayers, chants, and instructions for celebrating the Mass
AD 498
Nestorians (heretical Christian sect) driven out of Edessa, settled in Nisibis in Persia
AD 498-506
The Lawrencian schism, caused by the anti-Pope Lawrence
ca. AD 500
The Babylonian Talmud
AD 500
The German tribe of the Marcomanni left Bohemia and settled in Bavaria
Czechs moved into Bohemia and settled there
Lombards invaded and settled in the region north of the River Danube
Battle of Badon Hill - Britons defeated the Saxons. The British leader may be the prototype for the legends of King Arthur
"Dionysius the Areopagite", from Syria (not the man mentioned in the Bible) neo-platonic philosopher
Incense introduced in Christian church services
First plans of Vatican
AD 500-560
Dionysius Exiguus - Roman theologian, wrongly calculated the date for the Birth of Christ as December 23, 753 years after the foundation of Rome
AD 507-711
The Visigoth kingdom in Spain
AD 518-527
Justin I, emperor of Byzantine empire (former Eastern Roman empire)
AD 519
End of the First Schism between the Eastern and Western Churches
AD 521
Boëthius introduced Greek musical notation to the West
AD 524
Boëthius wrote "de consolatione philosophia", the Consolation of Philosophy, while in prison awaiting execution on a charge of high treason
AD 525
Dionysius Exiguus set Christian calendar (AD - Anno Domini, Year of the Lord) and calculated Jesus' birth as having been on December 23, 1AD, (He was probably off by several years)
AD 527-565
Emperor Justinian I, "The Great", became Byzantine emperor in Constantinople. Aided by his wife Theodora (an ex-actress and a Monophysite), his General Belisarius, and the eunuch Narses, he recovered North Africa from the Vandals and Italy from the Goths
AD 529
Emperor Justinian I of Byzantium closed the 1,000-year old School of Philosophy in Athens because it was too pagan. The pagan professors from the School moved to Persia and Syria
AD 529
Justinian's Code of Civil Law, Codex Vetus or Corpus Iuris, a re-organization and updating of Roman law;
Benedict of Nursia founded the Monastery of Monte Cassino and the Benedictine Order, and drew up his monastic rule;
The Council of Orange ended the Pelagian controversy
AD 532-537
Building of the Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) Church in Constantinople, by Justinian
AD 533
Justinian's general Belisarius defeated the Vandals, and made North Africa a province of the Byzantine Empire
AD 537
Battle of Camlan, Britain - death of king Arthur
AD 537-555
Pope Vigilius, involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinian and Theodora, excommunicated by N. African bishops in 550
AD 539-562
War between the Byzantine Empire and Persia
AD 540
First Welsh poets - Taliesin, Aneirin, Llywarch Hên
AD 540-594
Gregory of Tours, author of a History of the Franks
AD 540
Bulgars invaded the Balkan peninsula, ravaged Thrace, Macedonia, and Illyricum, and got as far as Corinth;
Persian King Chosroes sacked Antioch;
Empress Theodora of Byzantium introduced imperial apparel of white robe, purple cloak, gold tiara, pointed red shoes
AD 542
Gildas wrote "de excide et conquestu Britanniae" (The Conquest of Britain) - one of the earliest sources of British history
AD 542-594
The Plague of Constantinople, carried by rats on ships from Egypt and Syria, spread throughout Europe, and killed about half of the total population of Europe
AD 543
Justinian condemned Origen;
A year of disastrous earthquakes all over the known world
AD 544
Justinian condemned the "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia and other writings of "2-natures" Christology of the Council of Chalcedon
AD 547
Pope Vigilius issued "Iudicatum" supporting Justinian's anti-"2-natures" views;
Gildas recorded the symptoms of the Plague as it reached Britain
AD 550-1453
Byzantine Greek as spoken in Constantinople (Byzantium) became the standard for "good Greek"
AD 550
The Byzantine Greek Text of the Bible became the standard Bible of the Eastern Church. There was much smoothing and conflation of the text;
The crucifix became a Christian icon;
Procopius wrote "de Bellis" (About Wars) about the Persian, Vandal, and Gothic Wars with Byzantium;
St. David brought Christianity to Wales
AD 552
Justinian sent missionaries to China and Ceylon
AD 553
Justinian's missionaries smuggled silkworms out of Asia, and the silk industry became a state monopoly in Byzantium;
The Byzantine general Narses took Rome for Byzantium;
The Fifth Ecumenical Council - the Second Council of Constantinople, called by Justinian;
AD 556-561
Pope Pelagius I, selected by Justinian, endorsed the "Iudicatum" of 547
AD 560
St. Deniol founded the Abbey of Bangor in Wales
AD 563
St. Columba led a mission of twelve monks from Ireland to the Isle of Iona, founded a monastery, and started his mission to the Picts of Scotland;
Consecration of the Church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom)in Constantinople
AD 568
Lombards invaded Italy. Stayed until 774
AD 570-632
Mohammed "The Prophet" (pbuh) of Islam
AD 572-628
Wars between Byzantine Empire and Persia
AD 573-594
Gregory, bishop of Tours; wrote a History of the Franks "Gesta Francorum"
AD 589
Visigoths of Spain converted to Catholic Christianity;
Lombards of Italy converted to Catholic Christianity
AD 590
Plague hit Rome
ca. AD 590
Colubanus went as missionary from Ireland to Gaul, founded the monastery at Luxeuil, introduced the usages of the Celtic Church
AD 590-604
Pope Gregory I "The Great" - introduced picture books for illiterate people to learn the Bible, wrote a manual on the duties of the clergy, collected Church chants in the "Antiphonar", commanded that a way be found to collect and preserve the singing of the Benedictine monks of Santo Domingo de Silos (Gregorian Chant) and founded the Schola Cantorum - School for Singers - in Rome
AD 596
Gregory the Great sent Augustine of Canterbury as a Missionary to England
AD 597
Augustine of Canterbury landed at Thanet (in Kent, England), preached to Ethelbert of Kent, and founded a monastery. Augustine offended the Celtic Christian leaders by his imperious manner, so they did not join in his mission to the Saxons
Ethelbert of Kent and many of his court became Christians. His Queen was already a Christian princess, who had married Ethelbert on the condition that she be allowed to bring a Christian missionary with her
First English School founded, at Canterbury
AD 600
Smallpox spread from India into Asia Minor and southern Europe

Main Source : Smithsonian Timelines of Ancient History, The Timetables of History (Bernard Grun)

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Dr. Rollinson

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Portales, NM 88130

Last Updated: June 30, 2017

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