History Pages - Part 12

The Great Schism, the Norman Conquest : AD 800-1,066


AD 800
Charlemagne crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III, December 25, in Rome
Haroun Al-Raschid sent an Embassy to the court of Charlemagne
The Synod of Aix-la-Chapelle introduced the "Filioque" clause ("and the Son", referring to the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father and the Son) into the Creed. This became a major cause of dissension between Eastern and Western Churches
AD 801-865
Anskar, missionary to Scandinavia
AD 802
Rose trees introduced into Europe
AD 806
Norsemen sacked the Monastery of Iona
AD 810
Nynniaw, Welsh monk, wrote a History of Britain;
Muhammed ibn Musa al Chwarazmi wrote a book on mathematics "Al jhibra . . . " (the variations . . ) which came into European languages as "Algebra"
AD 814
Arabs adopted Indian numerals, including zero
AD 820
End of the Abassid Caliphate
AD 823
Arabs captured Crete
AD 825
Caliph Mamun arranged for the translation of Greek classics into Arabic : Arabic scientific studies began
AD 826
Christianity introduced into Scandinavia by King Harold of Denmark and Anskar
AD 829
The "Annales Regni Francorum" - "Annals of the Kings of the Franks" - official Frankish history
AD 834
Danes raided England
AD 840
Paschasius Radbertus, Abbot of Corbey, developed the doctrine of Transubstantiation - that the Elements of Communion are changed into the Body and Blood of Christ
AD 843
Empress Theodora reinstated image worship in Byzantine Empire
The Treaty of Verdun divided the Frankish Empire (the remains of Charlemagne's Empire) between the three grandsons of Charlemagne - Lothar I (Italy and Lorraine), Charles II the Bald (France), and Louis I (Germany)
AD 845
Johannes Scotus Erigena - "John the Scot" - became head of the palace school for Charles the Bald of France
AD 846
The Arabs sacked Rome and destroyed the Venetian fleet
AD 849-899
Alfred the Great
ca. AD 850
King Alfred translated several Books of the New Testament into Anglo-Saxon
AD 850
"Church Modes" in music - eventually developed into major and minor scales
Jews started to settle in the Rhineland, and developed a mixed Hebrew-German language, Yiddish
Coffee discovered by the Arabs
AD 862
Rostislav of Moravia asked the Byzantine emperor to send missionaries to Moravia
AD 863
Cyril and Methodius went as missionaries to the Slavs, and invented the Cyrillic Alphabet for the Slavic language
AD 865
The Danes invaded Northumbria and established a kingdom at York
AD 867-886
Byzantine Empire : Basil I started as a slave boy, came to the throne by helping to kill one Emperor, and then killing the next Emperor. He promoted the religious and linguistic conversion of the Slavs, making them become Greek-speaking Orthodox Christians. Basil started the Macedonian Dynasty (867 to 1057) during which the Empire reached its zenith. Basil was a capable general and during his rule the Saracen threat was diminished and southern Italy was recaptured
AD 868
Palestine annexed to Egypt
AD 870
The Danes invaded and settled in East Anglia
AD 871-899
Reign of Alfred the Great
AD 878
Alfred the Great defeated the Danes and recaptured London
AD 879
The Pope of Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated one another
AD 882
Saadia Gaon, Jewish Rabbinic scholar
AD 885
Mt. Athos appointed as a religious retreat by Emperor Basil I
AD 890
Alfred the Great organized a regular army and navy, strengthened the Law Courts, and established fairs and markets throughout his land
AD 900
England divided into Shires, with County Courts for justice
Alfonso III of Castile started to try to drive Muslim Arabs out of Spain
Development of Arab "arabesque" style of ornamentation
Beginnings of "part song" in fourths, fifths, and octaves
Start of Second Pueblo Period in Southwest region of N. America
AD 909
Rise of the Fatimid dynasty in North Africa
AD 911
Treaty of St. Clair-sur-Epte established Normandy as a Dukedom under Count Rollo I
AD 923-969
Byzantine Empire pushed back the Arabs
AD 925-940
Athelstan, King of England - recaptured Northumberland
AD 927
Odo, Abbot of Cluny, established a rule of discipline for the Benedictines
AD 929
King Wenceslas of Bohemia murdered by his brother
AD 935-1,000
Roswitha of Gandersheim - German nun and playwright
AD 937
Battle of Brunanburgh - Athelstan defeated Danes, Scots, and Britons
AD 939
Arabs driven out of Madrid
AD 939-1,020
Firdausi - Persian poet
AD 940-946
Edmund I, brother of Athelstan, King of England
AD 941
Danes made war on Edmund I
AD 942-953
Malcolm I, King of Scotland
AD 950-1,150
Islamic Umayyad Dynasty in Spain
AD 955
Russian Grand Duchess Olga baptized in Constantinople - became the "Apostle to the Russias"
AD 959-988
Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury
AD 961
Byzantine navy under Nicephorus Phocas won Crete back from the Arabs
AD 963
Monastics at Mount Athos, Greece
AD 965
Byzantines recaptured Cyprus from the Arabs
English invaded the Welsh Principality of Gwynedd
AD 969
Byzantines recaptured Antioch from the Arabs
AD 969-976
Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimisces, who conquered half of Bulgaria, defeated the Russian invasion and marched his armies to the outskirts of Jerusalem and Baghdad
AD 975-979
King Edward the Martyr of England
AD 976-1,025
Byzantine Emperor Basil II, "the Bulgar Slayer". Kievan Russia converted to Orthodox Christianity
AD 979
King Edward murdered, Ethelred II the Unready became king
AD 980
Pipe Organ with 400 pipes built at Winchester
AD 980-1,015
St. Vladimir, prince of Kiev
AD 980-1,037
Avicenna (Ibn Sina), Muslim philosopher and physician
AD 988
Vladimir of Kiev introduced Christianity into his lands, after his marriage to the sister of the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. The beginning of Byzantine influence in Russia
AD 1,000
Beowulf put into writing
Leif Eriksson, son of Eric the Red, may have discovered Nova Scotia
AD 1002-1066
Edward the Confessor
AD 1009
Muslims sacked the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem
AD 1013
The Danes took England, and Ethelred the Unready fled to Normandy
AD 1014
Battle of Clontarf ended Norse rule in Ireland
Canute became leader of the Danes in England
Ethelred the Unready returned to England
AD 1016
Ethelred the Unready died, and Canute became King of England
AD 1027
Giudo d'Arezzo introduced solmization in music - the tonic solfa, though "do" was originally called "ut"
AD 1027-1123
Omar Khayyam, Persian poet
AD 1033-1109
Anselm of Canterbury
AD 1035
Death of Canute. His kingdom was divided between his sons
AD 1040-1057
Macbeth, King of Scotland - came to the throne by murdering Duncan, the previous king
AD 1042-1066
Edward the Confessor, King of England
AD 1045-1099
El Cid - Rodrigo Diaz - Spanish national hero
AD 1040-1105
Rashi - Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, great French-Jewish scholar and commentator on the Scriptures
AD 1042
Rise of the Seljuk Turks
AD 1050
The Mabinogion, collection of Welsh epic songs, written down
AD 1053
Great Schism - between the Western Latin Church, centered on Rome, and the Eastern Greek Church, which became the Eastern Orthodox Church, centered on Byzantium (Constantinople)
Harold Godwinsson became earl of Essex
AD 1054
Pope Leo IX of Rome and Patriarch Michael Cerularius of the Eastern Church excommunicated one aother
AD 1064
AD 1064 - The Seljuk Turks conquered Armenia
AD 1065
Westminster Abbey consecrated
AD 1066
Halley's Comet seen over Europe, particularly England, and taken as an omen of bad fortune;

AD 1066 - The Norman Conquest :

  • January 5 - Edward the Confessor died
  • January 6 - Harold Godwinsson crowned as Harold II
  • September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge, in the north of England - Harold and his army defeated invading Danes
  • September 28 - William, Duke of Normandy, landed at Pevensey, raided the surrounding regions, set up a favorable battle position, and waited for Harold
  • Harold and his army marched post haste to the south to attack William, and they arrived exhausted at Hastings
  • October 14 - Battle of Hastings - Harold was killed by an arrow in his eye
  • December 25 - William crowned in London as William I of England, known to history as "William the Conqueror"

Main Sources : Smithsonian Timelines of Ancient History, The Timetables of History (Bernard Grun)

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Copyright © 1999 Shirley J. Rollinson, all Rights Reserved

Dr. Rollinson

Station 19, ENMU
Portales, NM 88130

Last Updated: June 30, 2017

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