History Pages - Part 13

The Crusades : AD 1,066 - 1,400


 

AD 1053
Great Schism - between the Western Latin Church, centered on Rome, and the Eastern Greek Church, centered on Byzantium (Constantinople)
AD 1066
Halley's Comet seen over Europe, particularly England, and taken as an omen of bad fortune
AD 1066
The Norman Conquest :
  • January 5 - Edward the Confessor died
  • January 6 - Harold Godwinsson crowned as Harold II
  • September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge, in the north of England - Harold and his army defeated invading Danes
  • September 28 - William, Duke of Normandy, landed at Pevensey, raided the surrounding regions, set up a favorable battle position, and waited for Harold
  • Harold and his army marched post haste to the south to attack William, and they arrived exhausted at Hastings
  • October 14 - Battle of Hastings - Harold was killed by an arrow in his eye
  • December 25 - William was crowned in London as William I of England, known to history as "William the Conqueror"
William the Conqueror became King of England and allowed Jews to settle in many English towns
AD 1070-1139
Moses Ibn Ezra, Spanish-Jewish poet and scholar, eventually left Spain and became a wandering philosopher
AD 1071
Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantine army and occupied of Jerusalem
AD 1071-1078
After the defeat of the Byzantine army, Michael VII Ducas, son of Romanus IV, claimed the Empire. However, the Turks captured and then released his father Emperor Romanus IV. The Empire was plunged into civil war and the Turkish tribes were able to enter the region unopposed. During the next ten years the factions bid against each other for the services of the Turkmen chieftains, handing many towns over to Turkish garrisons and facilitating the Turkish occupation. The Turks overran Asia Minor; they were pastoralists rather than agriculturalists. Cultivation of crops ceased, roads and aqueducts fell into ruin, Asia Minor became a desert and the Empire lost its main recruiting ground and granary
AD 1080
Seljuk Turks captured the cities of Asia Minor
AD 1081-1118
Emperor Alexius I Comnenus. He saved the Empire by fighting on every front; keeping the Normans, under Robert Guiscard, from the Balkans; driving back northern invaders, and holding the Seljuks at bay. He used the Crusaders for his purposes, and gave commercial concessions to the Venetians to gain the help of their ships. He devalued the Empire's currency, and had to raise taxes until some of the population welcomed the Seljuks
AD 1086-1145
Judah Halevi, Jewish poet
AD 1090-1153
Bernard of Clairvaux (in France), Christian monk and mystic
AD 1095-1291
10 Crusades, 1st called by Pope Urban II, to restore Asia Minor to Byzantium and conquer the Holy Land from the Turks
AD 1096
The First Crusade, called by Pope Urban at the Council of Clermont, resulted in the massacre of Jewish communities in Europe. Then the Crusaders gathered in Constantinople and swore an oath agreeing to return lands formerly belonging to the empire which they might conquer. They took back land from the Seljuk Turks, including Nicaea, then continued south to Palestine
AD 1098
Start of antagonism between Byzantines and Crusaders - Bohemund claimed Antioch for himself
AD 1099
Crusaders captured Jerusalem, massacred the Jews
AD 1099-1291
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, set up by the Crusaders
AD 1115
Alphonso I recaptured Spain from the Moslems
AD 1126-1198
Averroës (Ibn Rushd), Muslim philosopher in Spain
AD 1135-1204
Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon), Jewish scholar
AD 1138-1193
Saladin overthrew the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt
AD 1139
The Kuzari - a philosophy of Judaism, written by Judah Halevi
AD 1147
The Second Crusade;
Norman invaders under Roger II captured Thebes and Corinth and carried off silk-worms and weavers to Italy, breaking the Imperial monopoly
AD 1176
Defeat of Manuel I's army at Myriocephalum. Seljuk Turks re-established themselves in Asia Minor
AD 1181-1226
Francis of Assisi (in Italy), Christian mystic and friar
AD 1184-1204
Collapse of Byzantine Empire - revolts, riots, murders
AD 1187
Saladin captured Jerusalem from the Crusaders
AD 1187-1918
Second Muslim Period in Israel. Saladin's family (the Ayyubid Dynasty) and successors agreed to partition Jerusalem into Muslim and Christian quarters; also welcomed Jews back into the city
AD 1191
The Third Crusade;
Engish King Richard I (Coeur de Lion - the Lion Heart) took Cyprus from the Byzantines
AD 1194-1270
Nachmanides (Moses Ben Nachman), Jewish scholar
AD 1195
The Guide to the Perplexed written by Nachmanides
AD 1198
Richard the Lion Heart sold Cyprus to Frankish Crusaders who had been ousted from Jerusalem by the Arabs
AD 1203
Army of Fourth Crusade arrived in Constantinople and became embroiled in power struggles of rival "Emperors". Crusaders who got to Venice, but did not have the money for their passage to Egypt, agreed to help the Venetians take the Christian city of Zara from the Hungarians
AD 1204
Fourth Crusade - Sack of Constantinople by Venetians and Franks and installation of Count Baldwin of Flanders as the new Emperor. Another (Greek) "Emperor" set up a state centered on Nikaia, a third "Emperor" declared independence for Trebizond, and a fourth one took Thessaloniki from the Latins
AD 1205
Baldwin killed fighting the Bulgarians; Henry became second Latin Emperor of Constantinople
AD 1206
St. Dominic had a vision of the Virgin Mary and she gave him the Rosary
AD 1210-1645
Venetians took Crete and other Greek islands, established colonies and took control of all the Eastern trade
AD 1211
First re-settlement of Jewish communities in Palestine, by 300 rabbis from Europe
AD 1215
Founding of the Dominican order
AD 1223
Founding of the Franciscan order
AD 1225-1274
Thomas Aquinas, theologian and philosopher
AD 1227
Death of Ghenghis Khan (Mongol leader)
AD 1229-1244
Second Crusader Period. Muslims and Jews barred from Jerusalem. This period of 15 years is usually not reckoned as one of the major periods in the history of Israel, although it was a period of great building projects, such as the enlargement of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
AD 1227-1274
Thomas Aquinas, Christian theologian
AD 1230
Spanish Inquisition started
AD 1254
Jews expelled from France by King Louis IX; many of the Jews moved to Germany (the Rhineland) or further East (Poland and Russia)
AD 1254-1517
Islamic Mamluk ruled in Egypt
AD 1258
Islamic Abbasid Dynasty fell to the Mongols
AD 1261
Reconquest of Constantinople by Michael VIII Palaiologos. He had been helped by the Genoese, and had to reward them with commercial concessions which reduced the Empire's revenue. He could not afford the system of tax-free gifts of land to pay frontier forces, so he abolished such holdings in Asia - this weakened his defenses. He re-founded the University of Constantinople
AD 1274
At the Council of Lyons, Emperor Michael's envoys pledged ecclesiastical union with the West and acknowledged Papal supremacy. They were opposed by the Patriarch. The beginning of many attempts of union between Eastern and Western Christendom, which has not been achieved even yet
AD 1290
Jews expelled from England by King Edward I; many of the Jews were robbed and drowned by the captains of the ships transporting them out of England
AD 1291
Crusaders driven out of Syria
AD 1291-1516
Mamluk rule in Palestine
AD 1302-1388
Catalan Grand Company of Spanish mercenaries hired by Emperor Andronikos II to fight the Seljuk Turks. They turned against Constantinople and blockaded it for two years, then ravaged Macedonia and the Greek mainland
AD 1308
Turks able to invade Europe due to the Catalan Grand Company of Spanish mercenaries
AD 1321
Dante Alighieri wrote "The Divine Comedy"
AD 1328-1384
John Wycliffe, English reformer and Bible translator; preached against abuses, expressed unorthodox views of the sacraments (Penance and Eucharist), the use of relics, and against celibacy of the clergy
AD 1329
Nicaea captured by Ottoman Turks
AD 1336-1405
Timerlane (Tamburlane) the Mongol invaded Mesopotamia and destroyed most of the cities
AD 1337
Ottoman Turks captured Nicomedia
AD 1338
Ottoman Turks invaded and occupied Anatolia
AD 1345
Serbian Czar Stephan Dushan invaded Macedonia and Thrace
AD 1347
The Black Death (The Plague) struck Constantinople. About half the population of the city and one-third of the Empire died
AD 1348-1349
The Black Death spread to Europe; persecution of European Jews increased
ca. AD 1350
English began to emerge as the national language of England
Rise of the Muslim Ottoman Dynasty in Turkey
AD 1371
Battle of Maritsa - the Ottoman Turks took Bulgaria
AD 1380
The New Testament translated into English by John Wycliff. Wycliffe also preached against abuses of the Church and against celibacy of the clergy. His teaching were condemned by Church authorities
AD 1382
Completion of the whole Bible in English (including the Deuterocanonical Books) by John Wycliff and Nicholas of Hereford
AD 1389
Battle of Kosovo - the Ottoman Turks took Serbia
AD 1397
Ottoman Turks captured Thessaloniki and Athens, and besieged Constantinople. Then they went to the Peloponese (Greek mainland) and forced 30,000 Greeks into exile in Asia. Turkoman and Tartar colonies settled in Lakonia, Messinia, Achaia, and the Argolis
ca.AD 1400
The Zohar, Jewish Kabalistic book
AD 1400
Tamurlane (Tamburlane, Timerlane, Timur the Lame) sacked Damascus
AD 1402
Mongols and Tartars from central Asia, led by Tamurlane, wiped out Ottoman army near Ankara
AD 1408
Council of Oxford forbade translations of the Scriptures into the vernacular unless and until they were fully approved by Church authority, sparked by Wycliffite Bible, Sir Thomas More said: "It neither forbiddeth the translations to be read that were already well done of old before Wycliffe's days, nor damneth his because it was new but because it was naught; nor prohibiteth new to be made but provideth that they shall not be read if they be made amiss till they be by good examination amended."
AD 1412-1431
St. Joan of Arc, French national heroine
AD 1413
Tamurlane's Empire broke up and the Turks recovered control
AD 1415
Council of Florence condemned all of Wycliffe's works, but the actual Bibles continued to be used after having the heretical prologue removed, and were used by religious houses and the nobility and were tacitly accepted by Roman Catholics
AD 1439
Council of Florence - John VIII unsuccessfully attempted the union of Roman Catholic and East Orthodox Churches under Papal supremacy
AD 1453, May 29
Fall of Constantinople to Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" and the Ottoman Turks

Main Sources : Smithsonian Timelines of Ancient History, The Timetables of History (Bernard Grun)

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Copyright © 1999 Shirley J. Rollinson, all Rights Reserved

Dr. Rollinson

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ENMU
Portales, NM 88130

Last Updated: June 8, 2010

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