History Pages - Part 15

Revivals, the Rise of Zionism, Greek independence - AD 1700-1914


These time-lines are intended for use by my students who are taking Courses in Church History, History of Hebrew, History of the Greek language, Survey of World Religions, or Biblical Archaeology.
Hence they are rather selective in what events are included

AD 1500-1800
Safavid Shiite Muslim Dynasty of Iran
AD 1500-1800
Mughal Muslim Dynasty of India
AD 1682-1791
The Hundred Years' War between the Hapsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire
AD 1689-1694
William and Mary, rulers of England and Scotland
AD 1694-1702
William III of England reigned alone after the death of Queen Mary
AD 1700-1760
Israel Baal Shem Tov, founder of Jewish Hasidism
AD 1702-1714
Good Queen Anne of England
AD 1703-1758
Jonathon Edwards, American pastor, preacher
AD 1703-1791
John Wesley, Anglican clergyman, preacher, hymn-writer
AD 1704-1747
Luzzatto revived a biblical style of Hebrew
AD 1707
"Act of Union" Scotland, Wales, and England became Great Britain
AD 1707-1788
Charles Wesley, hymn-writer
AD 1714-1727
George of Hanover became King George I of England
AD 1718
Roman Catholic English version of the New Testament, by Dr. Nary, much less bulky than the Reims-Douay version
AD 1727-1760
George II of England
AD 1729-1786
Moses Mendelssohn, Jewish scholar; grandfather of Felix and Fanny Mendelssohn, musicians
AD 1738
John Wesley founded the Methodist Church. He did not intend the Methodists to leave the Church of England, but his followers broke away and chose their own bishops
AD 1750
Fundamentalist Wahhabi movement in Islam
AD 1760-1820
George III of England; suffered from porphyria, which caused dementia when he ate meat
His disease was hereditary, and can be traced back to James I
AD 1768-1774
Russo-Turkish War; Ottoman Turks were defeated
AD 1768-1828
Israel Jacobson, started "Reform Judaism"
AD 1769-1821
Napoleon Bonaparte, became a general, and then Emperor of France
AD 1770
Russian Empress Catherine II "the Great" sent the Russian fleet to western Greece to help Greeks revolt against Turks. The Revolt failed
AD 1775-1781
American revolution, guaranteed religious freedom
AD 1776
Declaration of Independence of the American colonies
AD 1784-1885
Sir Moses Montefiore founded Jewish settlements in Palestine
AD 1789-1791
French Revolution
AD 1792-1804
The First Republic of France
AD 1793
Louis XVI of France was executed
AD 1797
Collapse of the Venetian Republic
France took the Ionian Islands
AD 1798
Battle of the Pyramids, Napoleon in Egypt
AD 1799
Napoleon invaded Palestine. The British held Acre against him
AD 1801-1804
Muslim Wahhabis captured Mecca and Medina
AD 1801-1877
Brigham Young, Mormon leader, founder of Utah colony
AD 1803
The Louisiana Purchase - the USA buys Louisiana territories from France
AD 1804
Napoleon became Emperor of France
AD 1804-1881
Benjamin Disraeli, became Prime Minister of England
AD 1809-1847
Felix Mendelssohn, composer, grandson of Moses Mendelssohn
AD 1810
Ionian Islands annexed by Britain
AD 1812-1875
Moses Hess, Zionist
AD 1814-1815
Congress of Vienna - a meeting of the heads of state of all the European nations and Russia, to re-draw the map of Europe after the defeat of Napoleon. The Bourbon monarchy was restored in France
Louis XVIII of France
AD 1815
Battle of Waterloo - Napoleon was defeated and sent to exile on the island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821
AD 1818-20
First Reform Jewish congregations
AD 1818-1883
Karl Marx, Jewish, converted to Christianity, then founded Communism
AD 1829
The USA secures the Floridas from Spain
AD 1820-1830
George IV of England
AD 1821
Abortive Greek revolt in Moldavia, led by Prince Alexander Ypsilantes, a major-general in the Russian army
AD 1821-1829
Greek War of Independence
AD 1822
Massacre of Hios by Ottomans after Greek Insurrection, killed 25,000, enslaved 50,000 of total 100,000 population
Champolion deciphered the Egyptian hieroglyphic system from the Rosetta Stone
AD 1825-1827
Egyptians recaptured Greece for the Ottoman Turks
AD 1827, October 29
Naval Battle of Navarino Bay. European fleet destroyed Egyptian fleet
AD 1827
Joseph Smith founded the "Latter Day Saints" - the Mormon Church - after having a vision of the Angel Moroni
AD 1830
Appearance of the Virgin Mary in Paris
AD 1830-1837
William IV of England
AD 1832
Church of Christ (Disciples) organized by Presbyterians distressed by Protestant factionalism and decline of fervor
AD 1832-1841
Egyptian Occupation of Palestine
AD 1833
Autocephelous Church of Greece created
Installation of King Otto of Greece (1816-1867), the son of King Ludwig of Bavaria
AD 1837-1901
Queen Victoria of England
AD 1843
Greece became a semi-constitutional monarchy after a bloodless revolt enforced the dismissal of Bavarian ministers
B'nai B'rith (Children of the Covenant) founded
AD 1845-1934
Baron Edmond James de Rothschild
AD 1846
Appearance of the Virgin Mary at La Salette in France
The Second Republic of France
Napoleon III, Emperor of France
AD 1852-1922
Charles Taze Russell, founded the Jehovah's Witnesses in the 1870s
AD 1853-1856
Crimean (Russo-Turkish) War
French and English troops occupied Greece
AD 1858
Appearance of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes in France. Lourdes became a center for miraculous healings
AD 1858-1922
Ben Yehuda decided to recreate Hebrew as a spoken language, rather than a literary one
AD 1860-1904
Theodore Herzl, founder of Zionism
AD 1860-1911
Gustav Mahler, composer
AD 1862
King Otto of Greece deposed. Replaced by the Danish prince King George I of Greece, with a new constitution creating a "crowned democracy"
AD 1864
Ionian Islands ceded to Greece by Britain
Leon Pinsker wrote "Autoemancipation" (published 1882), and argued for the foundation of a Jewish state
AD 1866-1869
Unsuccessful revolt of Crete against the Ottoman Turks
AD 1869-1870
The First Vatican Council, (reckoned by Roman Catholics as the 20th Ecumenical Council), affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility - ie. when a pope speaks ex cathedra on faith or morals he does so with the supreme apostolic authority, which no Catholic may question or reject
The "Old Catholics" of Europe did not accept some of the rulings of the council, and formed a separate Catholic Church which entered into communion with the Anglican Church
AD 1870-1940
The Third Republic of France
AD 1871
Appearance of the Virgin Mary in Pontmain, France
AD 1873-1956
Leo Back, theologian of Reform Judaism, was put in Teresienstadt German concentration camp during WW II
AD 1874-1952
Chaim Weizmann, statesman and scientist
AD 1877-1888
Russo-Turkish War resulted in the creation of Bulgaria
AD 1878
Cyprus ceded to Britain by Ottoman Empire
Petah Tikvah (agricultural community) founded by orthodox Jews in Palestine
Congress of Berlin reaffirmed religious liberty and equality throughout the Turkish Empire (including Israel)
The Niagara Bible Conference formulated a 14-point creed which became popular with Fundamentalists
AD 1879
Appearance of the Virgin Mary in Knock, Ireland
AD 1879-1955
Albert Einstein, Zionis, physicist, formulated the Theory of Relativity
AD 1880-1939
Vladimir Jabotinski, Zioinst leader, founder of the New Zionist Organization, Haganah, Jewish Legion, Irgyn, Betar, Revisionist Party
AD 1881
Thessaly and Arta region of Epirus ceded to Greece by Ottoman Turks after intervention by European Powers
Russian pogroms against the Jews, and mass migration of Jews out of Russia
AD 1881-1894
The Revised Version of the Bible, called for by the Church of England; included the Apocrypha
AD 1882
The British occupied Egypt
AD 1882-1903
The First Aliyah (immigration of Jews into Palestine) mainly from Russia
AD 1885-1962
Niels Bohr, scientist
AD 1886-1973
David Ben-Gurion, statesman
ca. AD 1886
Founding of Conservative Judaism by Solomon Schechter in the USA
AD 1887-1990
Marc Chagall, artist
AD 1890-1914
Greek Immigration to USA. Widespread unemployment and economic problems led to migrations to US of 350,000 Greeks, one-fifth of the total population
AD 1893
The Dreyfus Affair
AD 1894
Sholem Aleichem wrote the first episode in the "Life of Tevye the Dairyman" - which became the basis of "Fiddler on the Roof"
AD 1896
Theodor Herzl published "Der Judenstadt" (The Jewish State) promoting Zionism
Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France revived the Olympic Games at the ancient stadium in Athens
AD 1897
Greece fought and lost a two-week war with the Ottoman Empire
Crete gained autonomy, with Prince George of Greece as the first governor
Theodor Herzl convened the First Jewish Zionist Congress, and the foundation of the Zionist Organization, in Basle (Switzerland)
The Dreyfus Affair - Alfred Dreyfuss, French Jewish soldier unjustly accused and sentenced
AD 1898
Emile Zola publishes "J'Accuse" on behalf of Alfred Dreyfuss
AD 1898-1904
The Twentieth Century New Testament, changed the order of books to chronological
AD 1898-1936
George Gershwin, composer
AD 1898-1978
Golda Meir, became the fourth Prime Minister of Israel
AD 1899
Albert Dreyfus acquitted and reinstated as a Major
AD 1900-1990
Aaron Copeland, composer
AD 1901
"Evangelakia" riots over translations of the Bible into demotic Greek
American Standard Version of the Bible, a rescension of the RV, included words/phrases preferred by Americans
Founding of The Pentecostal Church, in Topeka, Kansas, as members of several denominations were touched by the Holy Spirit
AD 1901-1910
Edward VII of England
AD 1904-1914
Second Aliyah, mainly from Russia and Poland, to Israel
AD 1909
First Kibbutz founded, at Degania, Palestine
Tel Aviv founded as the first all-Jewish city in Palestine
AD 1910
5-point statement of the Presbyterian General Assembly, also used by Fundamentalists
AD 1910-1915
"The Fundamentals", a 12-volume collection of essays by 64 British and American scholars and preachers, the foundation of Fundamentalism
AD 1910-1936
George V of England
AD 1912-1913
The Balkan Wars
The Balkan League of Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece declared war on Turkey and drove the Turks out of Europe
Greece gained Macedonia and Epirus
AD 1913
Treaty of London put Crete under Greek rule.
Treaty of Bucharest put much of western Thrace under Greek rule. Lesbos, Chios, and Samos were also incorporated
AD 1913, Mar 18
King George of Greece was assassinated in Thessaloniki
AD 1913-1924
The James Moffat Bible, the first one-man translation in almost 400 years
AD 1914-1918
The First World War
AD 1917
The Russian Revolution
The Fall of the Ottoman Empire to the British
The British Foreign Minister Balfour pledged his support for the establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine"
Appearance of the Virgin Mary in Fatima, Portugal, accompanied by the "miracle of the sun" witnessed by 70,000 - 100,000 people
AD 1917, June
Britain and France demanded that King Constantine of Greece abdicate. The King and his son Prince George fled, his second son Alexander became the provisional King
AD 1917, July 2
Venizelos assumed control of Greece and declared war on the Central Powers
AD 1917, Dec. 9
British forces entered Jerusalem, began modernization of the country
AD 1919
Foundation of the World Christian Fundamentals Association
AD 1919, March
Italy landed forces at Antalya to ensure their mandate over southwest Turkey which had promised to them for entering WWI on the side of the Entente
AD 1919, May 6
Greek forces, escorted by British and French naval units, occupied Smyrna in reaction to Italian invasion
AD 1919-1922
Graeco-Turkish War
AD 1919-23
The Third Aliyah of Jews to Palestine, mainly from Russia
AD 1920
Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (yishuv) to conduct its affairs.
AD 1920, June
Turkish nationalists under Mustapha Kemal attacked British on the Ismid peninsula at the eastern end of the Sea of Marmara
Greek forces come to help the British
Aug 10 - Treaty of Sevres, signed but never ratified by the Entente powers of Turkey. Promised to give Greece eastern Thrace, the islands of Tenedos and Imbros and administration of the Smyrna district that stays under Turkish sovereignty for five years. By a plebiscite after this period the population was to be allowed to ask for incorporation into the Greek state
Dec 5 - The Greeks voted for King Constantine's return, in spite of the allies' threat to cut off all aid to Greece
First Jewish moshav (cooperative village), Nahalal, founded in Palestine.
AD 1922
Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Sept 8-14 - Smyrna evacuated after the Greek army was defeated and 30,000 civilians were killed. A million refugees fled to Greece, joining half a million Greeks who had fled earlier
Sept 26 - Military coup in Greece, in reaction to the loss in Asia Minor, led by Colonels Plastiras and Gonatas, creating the Revolutionary Government
King Constantine of Greece abdicated, and his son became King George II
AD 1922-1948
British Mandate in the Middle East - the League of Nations granted Britain control of Palestine and much of the Middle East
Transjordan was set up on three quarters of the region, leaving one quarter to become the Jewish national homeland
Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.

Main Sources : Smithsonian Timelines of Ancient History,
The Timetables of History (Bernard Grun)

Go here for Geography Pages

Copyright © 1999 Shirley J. Rollinson, all Rights Reserved

Dr. Rollinson

Station 19
Portales, NM 88130

Last Updated: June 30, 2017

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